Torsion springs, coiled elements that handle torque, are found in many items ranging from simple clothespins to large industrial machines. Their design involves thoughtful consideration of factors such as load, material type, operation environment, and safety protocols. For instance, the torsion springs in a garage door opener differ significantly from ones in a mechanical watch due to distinctive differences in loading conditions and usage environments. Such variations influence decisions concerning coil diameter, wire size, and spring rate.

This article serves as a guide to the understanding of torsion spring design, application, and production techniques. The aim is not to transform you into a spring design specialist, but to provide the pertinent knowledge which will aid you in making appropriate design choices in your engineering projects.

Torsion Spring Design Principles

The properties of torsion springs such as tensile strength, elasticity, and fatigue limit depend on the chosen material. Examples of commonly selected materials are stainless steel suitable for high temperature operations and phosphor bronze due to its resistance to corrosion. Alternatives include Inconel and music wire which are used in certain operational conditions. For example, Inconel is applicable under continuous force because of its high fatigue limit.

Mechanical properties and uses of the spring depend on its dimensions - the wire diameter, body length, and overall diameter. Correct dimensions are important for achieving the desired force and deflection. For operations involving heavy loads like a garage door assembly, a large wire diameter is recommended due to its better endurance against cyclic forces.

Whether the spring will be subjected to cyclical or continuous force also affects its design. Materials with high fatigue limits that can stand repetitive loading and unloading are advised for continuous force applications. These considerations can guide your decision on material selection and design factors.

Installation methods for the torsion spring are determined by the spring's end configurations such as the design and orientation of its legs. These configurations can range from simple straight or bend styles, double torsion, to custom designs. Choosing the configuration that meets the functional requirements of the specific application is essential. For example, a clothespin application would call for a straight leg configuration, while more intricate machinery might necessitate custom designs.

Uses of Torsion Springs

Torsion Spring Manufacturing Techniques

Manufacturing torsion springs starts with selecting the appropriate material. This choice primarily relies on the intended function of the spring and the environmental conditions it will face. For example, in conditions where corrosion is a possibility, materials resistant to corrosion, such as stainless steel, are favoured. The diameter of the wire used in the manufacturing process impacts the mechanical properties of the torsion spring, including its resistance to torque.

Once the wire's diameter is established, it is coiled using a machine. This machine ensures uniformity in the spring's dimensions. The coiling process can create varying end configurations. It's crucial to note that not all end configurations are suitable for every situation. As a result, engineers need to select an end configuration that works with the operational mechanism and fits within the space allocation.

After coiling, the springs undergo stress-relieving. This process alleviates the internal pressures caused by coiling by heating the springs at a certain temperature for a defined period. One can understand the advantages of this process in its application in the automotive industry. For instance, without stress-relieving, a torsion spring used in a car suspension system might break prematurely under substantial cyclic loads.

In some instances, springs may need grounding to create a flat bearing surface, which can aid in alignment within a mechanism and ensure uniform force application. However, for instances where detailed alignment isn't a requirement, grounding may not be needed.

The concluding steps of manufacturing torsion springs include dimension inspection and rust resistance treatment. Coatings that resist rust are beneficial for environments with significant humidity, salt content, or temperature changes. However, the necessity for such coatings depends on the spring's intended use. Finally, the inspected and potentially treated springs are packaged and sent off for distribution.


Torsion springs boast versatility due to their ability to deliver rotational force. Their design involves careful consideration of material properties, dimensions, and the requirements of the intended use. Material choice is key, but so is determining the best way to make the springs, aiming for consistent quality and good performance. Revisions and enhancements in design, coupled with advancements in manufacturing, have benefits for a variety of industries, including automotive engineering, aerospace, and production of consumer products.